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The secondary school (a learning environment for students aged from 12 to 15 and a learning environment for students aged from 15 to 18 years)

The ideas that underpin the learning outcomes, teaching and learning practices, assessment and evaluation found in Montessori learning environments have been summarised in the following Eight Principles of Montessori Education, identified in research published by Lillard (2005: 29):

• Movement and cognition are closely entwined, and movement can enhance thinking and learning.

• Learning and well-being are improved when people have a sense of control over their lives.

• People learn better when they are interested in what they are learning.

• Tying extrinsic rewards to an activity, like money for reading or high grades for tests, negatively impacts motivation to engage in that activity when the reward is withdrawn. • Collaborative arrangements can be very conducive to learning.

• Learning situated in meaningful contexts is often deeper and richer than learning in abstract contexts.

• Particular forms of adult interaction are associated with more optimal child outcomes.

• Order in the environment is beneficial to children.

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